Non-Flowering Plants

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These are early formed plants which do not produce flowers as we see in several plants in our daily life. But, back then, flowers were not a part of the plants! Mm… How would they have reproduced without producing flowers? They reproduced by producing spores which they continue to do even today. These kinds of plants include Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. They all produce spores and are dependent on water for reproduction in one way or another except for the Gymnosperms which produce naked seeds!


Bryophytes produce enclosed reproductive structures (gametangia and sporangia), but they produce neither flowers nor seeds, reproducing via spores. The term “bryophyte” comes from Greek βρύον, bryon, “tree-moss, oyster-green” + φυτόν – phyton “plant”. – Wikipedia

 The ones on the left are moss and they are in the sporophyte stage (Reproductive stage).  They grow on every possible surface where it is constantly moist and the environment is damp and cool.

Bryophyte is a traditional name used to refer to all embryophytes (land plants) that are “non-vascular plants”, such as mosses, hornworts, and liverworts.




These are vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem) that reproduce and disperse via spores. Because they produce neither flowers nor seeds, they are referred to as cryptogams. The group includes ferns, horsetails, clubmosses, spikemosses and quillworts. Therefore, pteridophytes are no longer considered to form a valid taxon, but the term is still used as an informal way to refer to ferns!

They produce spores under their leaves. The mature spores under the leaves then will get dispersed by water and later germinate in a favourable place and develop into a sporophyte and the cycle goes on…


These are a group of more advanced seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and Gnetales.  Their naked condition stands in contrast to the seeds and ovules of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are enclosed within an ovary. Gymnosperm seeds develop either on the surface of scales or leaves, often modified to form cones, or at the end of short stalks as in Ginkgo.

The term “gymnosperm” comes from the Greek composite word γυμνόσπερμος (γυμνός gymnos, “naked” and σπέρμα sperma, “seed”), meaning “naked seeds”, after the unenclosed condition of their seeds (called ovules in their unfertilized state). -Wikipedia

 A conifer forest on the right! These trees generally grow well in colder climates and reach great heights! They love the foggy weather so much and live to their fullest in those conditions. They make the tallest trees in the world and all of the conifers are evergreen!






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