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Flowering Plants

BalsaminaceaeEndangeredEndemicWestern Ghats

Impatiens of the Western Ghats! The most beautiful plant genus I know!

1. Introduction

Impatiens are a genus of plants belonging to the family Balsaminaceae. The family Balsaminaceae consists of two genera. One being Impatiens and the other Hydrocera with only one species – Hydrocera triflora. Impatiens is however a large and diverse genus with more than 1000 species of plants. Impatiens are commonly called Balsam, Jewelweed, Snapweed, and Impatiens as well! Okay. Now that you’re acquainted with the family and the genus, let’s talk about the distribution and the diversity of Impatiens of the Western Ghats.

2. Distribution

The genus Impatiens are usually distributed widely throughout the Northern Hemisphere and the tropics. In India, they are distributed throughout the high altitude and rain-fed areas. They are found in abundance in the Himalayas as well as in the Western Ghats. Sir J.D. Hooker would have divided Indian Impatiens into two wide categories like 1. The Himalayan Impatiens and 2. The Western Ghats Impatiens. I would like to approach this genus in the same way as Sir Hooker did because it makes perfect sense!

3. Impatiens of the Himalayas

They are seasonal plants and can be found only during the spring season. It is only during the spring season the conditions are favorable for these plants to grow and bloom. The winters are too cold and dry because most parts of their habitats are covered in snow.

The Impatiens in the Himalayas are all terrestrial herbs and shrubs. They all share a common flower shape with a long and bigger lip, a shorter spur. Another distinguishing character of the Himalayan Balsams is their elongated fruits which are bulged near the apex. Whereas, the Western Ghats Impatiens have shorter fruits which are bulged in the middle. They are found in moist and cooler regions of the Himalayan mountains.

Impatiens glandulifera
A sideview of Impatiens glandulifera flower showing a huge lip and short spur. Photo Credit – Eflora of India.
Seed pods of Impatiens glandulifera
The fruits of Impatiens glandulifera with a bulged apex.

4. Impatiens of the Western Ghats

It is an entirely different story when it comes to the Western Ghats. There is no such harsh winter in the Western Ghats. This does not mean that the Impatiens can survive and grow here throughout the year. Here the monsoons shower the hills for almost 8 to 9 months every year. Then, there is a dry season for 3 to 4 months. Impatiens germinate, grow, mature, flower and fruit happily during the lush monsoon seasons. They disperse their seeds and die off by the end of the monsoon season and when the monsoon starts again in the next June, the seeds germinate and the cycle repeats.

The Impatiens of Western Ghats are very diverse as compared to those of the Himalayas. The flowers come in different shapes, sizes, the leaves are arranged in different ways on the stem and the plant itself shows considerable variations as it grows on every possible habitat here in the Western Ghats. There are Impatiens that call the forest floor the home, the terrestrial, some grow on rocks as lithophytes, some grow on other trees as epiphytes just like orchids. Some species are capable of growing on rocks as well as on trees provided the conditions are right for their survival! Let me walk you through each of the types.

Impatiens scapiflora - Impatiens of the Western Ghats
Impatiens scapiflora endemic to Western Ghats showing a small lip, a long spur and a fruit bulged in the middle.

5. Habitat

Based on the habitat, the place they live in, Impatiens of Western Ghats are classified into three groups.

5.1. Terrestrial

These are the Impatiens that grow on the ground, directly in the soil. They too are very much variable in height and habit. Some are small herbs which grow only up to a few inches (Impatiens inconspicua) while some are large shrubs up to several feet (Impatiens maculata, Impatiens fruticosa) in height. The branching can be very simple (Impatiens oppositifolia) to complex (Imapatiens cordata). Some plants can be few branched herbs while some can be profusely branched shrubs. While some grow very close to streams (Impatiens elegans, Impatiens tangachee) while others can happily grow in moist forest floors(Impatiens minor, Impatiens coelotropis). Others even grow in open high-elevation grasslands (Impatiens henslowiana, Impatiens munronii)

Impatiens minor - Impatiens of the Western Ghats
Impatiens minor growing on the forest floor along with ferns and other plants.

The arrangement of leaves also differs greatly with different species. Some species have alternate (Impatiens elegans, Impatiens maculata) leaves while some have opposite leaves (Impatiens lawii, Impatiens minor) and even whorled leaves (Impatiens verticillata, Impatiens gardneriana). There is also a great diversity in the flower shapes and sizes.

5.2. Lithophytes

These are the Impatiens that grow on rocks. Usually these are the rocks that are constantly dripping with water from the land above. These water dripping slopes are perfect habitats for rock dwelling Impatiens or rock balsams.

Impatiens acaulis growing on rocks. Photo credit – Dinesh Valke

5.3. Epiphytes

Some Impatiens have even adapted themselves to grow on trees like orchids and some ferns do! They use the trees just as a support for growing and cause no harm to the trees they live on. They are found only in areas with abundant rainfall where there is enough moisture to support these water-needing plants on tree trunks and branches!

Impatiens violacea - Impatiens of the Western Ghats
Impatiens violacea growing on a moss covered tree trunk. It is an epiphyte. Photo Credit – Salish Menacheryeravikulam.org

6. Habit

Based on the habit of the plant, i.e., the appearance of the plant, they are classified into several groups.

6.1. Scapigerous Impatiens

The scapigerous Impatiens are characterized by the presence of “Scape”. A scape is a leafless flowering stalk produced by the plant. It bears only the flowers and no leaves.

Another important character of these scapigerous herbs is the presence of radical leaves. All their leaves arise from a single point. Thus, they only have a few leaves. The scapigerous balsams usually have a small tuber underground and the radical leaves arise from the submerged tuber. They lack a true stem.

Impatiens clavicornu
The scape of Impatiens clavicornu.

Again, there is a great diversity in the shape of leaf, scape, size and shape of flowers within this group! It would be very interesting to see these plants in the wild, in their natural habitat. It will be as if the plants grow out of nothing on bare, vertical, sheer rock surfaces that drip with water from above!

6.2. Epiphytic Impatiens

Epiphytic Impatiens are, without a doubt, the most interesting type of Impatiens I’ve ever seen! They are the most stunning of all types of Impatiens. Epiphytic balsams are usually found high in the trees but are a sight to behold! They have the most beautiful flowers of all types of Impatiens.

The flowers are greatly modified in shape which make them look exotic and unusually beautiful with bright colors. The stems of the epiphytic balsams are thick and swollen which is an adaptation to survive short dry spells while living high in the canopy. The leaves are too somewhat thicker and leathery that helps to store some water.

Impatiens parasitica, an epiphytic balsam endemic to South Western Ghats. Photo credit – eravikulam.org

6.3. Opposite Leafed Impatiens

These Impatiens are terrestrial – growing on the shaded forest floor to growing in open high-alltitude grasslands among grasses and other plants. They have oppositely arranged leaves and somewhat similar flower shapes. However, there are great variations in the habit, size and shape of leaves, color of the flowers, the presence and absence of spur.

Impatiens tomentosa - Impatiens of the Western Ghats
The opposite leaves of Impatiens tomentosa.

6.4. Impatiens with Umbellate inflorescence

The Impatiens having “Umbel” inflorescence are categorized in this group. They can have alternate, opposite or even whorled leaves. There is also a great variation in the habit, the size of plant, flower color, flower shapes, shape of leaves, presence and absence of spur.

Impatiens viscosa - Impatiens of the Western Ghats
Impatiens viscosa showing umbel inflorescence.

6.5. Impatiens with Racemose inflorescence

The Impatiens with “Raceme” inflorescence are placed in this group. The inflorescence is a raceme with elongated peduncles that bear flowers.

Impatiens maculata inflorescence - Impatiens of the Western Ghats
Impatiens maculata showing long raceme inflorescences.

7. Flowers

The flowers of Impatiens show great variation in color, shape, size, presence of spur and absence of spur. The epiphytic balsams have greatly modified flowers with unusual colors as found in the other groups of Impatiens.

7.1. Flower color

The commonly found flower color in the genus Impatiens is pink. There is a great variation in pink color in various species which vary from whitish pale pink color to dark purplish pink color. Apart from pink, other colors in which the Impatiens of Western Ghats exist are purple, white, red, maroon, orange and yellow.

Epiphytic Impatiens have violet, maroon, green, yellow, red in their floral parts.

Impatiens anaimudica - Impatiens of the Western Ghats
Maroon colored flower of Impatiens anaimudica. Photo credit – Salish Menachery

7.2. Flower shape

Impatiens have 5 petals. One anterior petal called the Standard. 4 lateral petals fused in two pairs to form two Wings. One posterior petal modified into a Lip producing a long appendage called Spur.

For convenience and easy understanding, the floral parts are divided into three –

  1. Standard
  2. Wings
  3. Lip and Spur

The variation is seen mainly in the wings and spur. Though, the standard too shows variation to a great extent, it is not very pronounced in appearance as the standard petal is usually very small.

The wings can be one lobed, two lobed or three lobed. They also show great variation in shapes, sizes and colors.

The spur is an important character of Impatiens and shows a huge variation from one species to another. The spur can be slender or stout, long or short, bulged at the end. The end of the spur can be blunt or sharp. The spur can be straight (usually short) or incurved (usually long). The spur also shows variation in being pink colored (Imaptiens gardneriana), white, green (Impatiens dasysperma). It also shows variation with the presence and absence of hairs. Spur can even be absent altogether in some species.

7.3. Flower size

The flower size also varies from species to species. Some species can have very tiny flowers only a few millimeters across (Impatiens goughii, Impatiens omissa) while some can have large flowers which can be up to a few inches across (Impatiens scapiflora, Impatiens grandis)

8. Leaf shapes

The leaf shapes vary from ovate, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, cordate, round-shaped. All Impatiens in India have simple leaves except one species Imaptiens chandrasekharanii which has palmately lobed leaves with lobes 7 to 9 lobes.

However, the leaves are arranged in different fashions. They can be altenate, opposite or whorled in various species.

9. Endemism

The Impatiens of Western Ghats are very strictly endemic plants and there are several degrees of endemism in these plants. Firstly, the Impatiens found in the Western Ghats are all endemic to the Western Ghats and found nowhere else in the world.

They are either present throughout the entire western ghats are they are endemic to an area in the Western Ghats. The Western Ghats itself can be divided into three areas as –

  1. Northern Western Ghats – From southern Gujarat to Maharashtra
  2. Central Western Ghats – From southern Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka
  3. Southern Western Ghats – From southern Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu

There are several species of Impatiens that are strictly endemic to each of the above-said areas. Some Impatiens found in Northern Western Ghats cannot be found either in Central Western Ghats or in Southern Western Ghats. This applies to every area and the range of endemism becomes stricter as we move south.

The Southern Western Ghats has the most number of Impatiens in the entire Western Ghats. There is even more specific endemism in the Southern Western Ghats. The reason is the presence of Palghat pass which is a natural gap of about 30 kilometers in the elsewhere continuous mountain range. Such a huge natural gap in the mountain range has caused another level of endemism. This restricted many plants to certain localities because some of these ecologically sensitive plants were unable to move past the pass. While this can be one assumption, there is no solid evidence for this endemism. Another reason could be the microclimates that exist in the Western Ghats due to greatly varying elevations.

One has to keep in mind that the Southern Western Ghats have all the highest peaks in the entire Western Ghats. Several peaks here rise from 2400 m to 2695 m. Many hill stations are located here – Ooty (2200 m), Kodaikanal (2100 m), Coonoor (1900 m), Kotagiri (1800 m), Munnar (1500 m). The highest peak in the Western Ghats, Anamudi (2,695 m) is in the Anamalai Hills of Kerala and Doddabetta (2637 m) is in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu.

Several species present above the Palghat pass (In the Nilgiris, Silent Valley) are not found in the mountain range that starts south of the pass. After the pass, the Western Ghats rise again with the Nelliyampathy Hills in Kerala and Anamalai Hills in Tamil Nadu and continue up to the Agasthiyamalai Hills in the south.

10. Some Impatiens of the Western Ghats

Following are some of the Impatiens species that I was lucky enough to have witnessed in the wild!

10.1. Impatiens jerdoniae

Impatiens jerdoniae on a tree - Impatiens of the Western Ghats

10.2. Impatiens scapiflora

Impatiens scapiflora on a moist rock

10.3. Impatiens balsamina var. rosea

Impatiens balsamina var. rosea

10.4. Impatiens balsamina var. balsamina

Impatiens balsamina var. balsamina

10.5. Impatiens campanulata

Impatiens campanulata

10.6. Impatiens dasysperma

Impatiens dasysperma

10.7. Impatiens elegans

Impatiens elegans

Read more about Impatiens elegans in this post – https://www.happybotanist.com/impatiens-elegans-the-elegant-balsam/

10.8. Impatiens floribunda

Impatiens floribunda

10.9. Impatiens fruticosa

Impatiens fruticosa

10.10. Impatiens gardneriana

Impatiens gardneriana on a dripping rock

10.11. Impatiens goughii

Impatiens goughii on a dripping rock - Impatiens of the Western Ghats

10.12. Impatiens inconspicua

Impatiens inconspicua

10.13. Impatiens leschenaultii

Impatiens leschenaultii flowers

10.14. Impatiens maculata

Impatiens maculata flowers - Impatiens of the Western Ghats

10.15. Impatiens phoenicea

Impatiens phoenicea

10.16. Impatiens tomentosa

Impatiens tomentosa

10.17. Impatiens minor

Impatiens minor

10.18. Impatiens viscosa

Impatiens viscosa

11. Conservation Status

Talking about conservation is an absolute necessity when we have to talk about the Impatiens of Western Ghats. One has to understand the nature of these plants in order to understand why conservation is crucial for plants like these.

Impatiens are very sensitive to changes in their environment. They are very specific in terms of growth conditions. They require consistent moisture in the wind. Dry winds are a big no-no to the survival of these plants. They require constant access to water. Most of them grow near or directly on streams. Most of them love growing in shaded places. Any small change to the above said parameters will result in the disappearance of these plants from their habitat.

There is already enough pressure on these plants from climate change, erratic rainfall patterns, monsoons failing altogether at times, etc. Adding to this, humans destroy their habitats bu clearing the forests for plantation and tourism. This places a huge threat on the survival of these plants and their habitat keeps shrinking which makes them very vulnerable. All of the Impatiens present in the Western Ghats are either endangered or critically endangered as their environment is changed by humans for bad.

The survival of these species hangs on a thin thread. A species of Impatiens existing in huge numbers today does not mean they are safe from disappearing. One small change to their environment can wipe out the plants completely from their environment without the possibility of recovering.

Efforts should be made to preserve the forests that we have right now and increase the forest cover so these delicate beauties can not only survive now but also into the future years.

12. Further Reading

  1. Arrangement of leaves on the stem – https://www.happybotanist.com/arrangement-leaves-stem/
  2. Compound Leaves – https://www.happybotanist.com/compound-leaves/
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BalsaminaceaeDicotsFlowering PlantsWestern Ghats

Impatiens elegans – The elegant balsam

Impatiens elegans among ferns!

Introduction

Impatiens elegans – the elegant balsam is a common, yet beautiful species of Balsam found in the Western Ghats of India. It is during the bountiful monsoon months these beautiful plants erupt in abundance and decorate the forest floor, streams and small waterfalls that run through the forests with pretty pink flowers.

Taxonomy

Order : Ericales

Family : Balsaminaceae

Genus : Impatiens

Species : elegans

Distribution

It is found only in the two states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala of India and nowhere else in the world. It grows above the elevation of 1200 meters above sea level and is found up to 1800 meters above sea level. Impatiens elegans is endemic to the Southern Western Ghats. They are found only to the south of Palghat pass. Their range starts from the Nelliyampathy and Anamalai hills and extends up to Agasthiyamalai Hills in the South.

Range of Impatiens elegans
The range of Impatiens elegans

Description

Habit and Habitat

It is a herb that grows up to a height of 30 to 40 cm. It grows near streams, on rocks constantly dripping with water, in the forest floor among leaf litter where it is constantly moist. It prefers to grow in cool, shaded, damp places of the forest where it gets almost a constant dripping of water. Thus, moist evergreen forests occurring at elevations above 1200 MSL support this plant. Wherever the conditions are just right for its survival, it grows in abundance and in huge colonies!

Impatiens elegans growing in big groups on the forest floor.

Stem

The stem is erect and branched. The stem roots whenever a node touches the soil. The stem is glabrous, i.e., without hairs. The stem is usually translucent, like glass and succulent. If you crush the stem, it will be very watery which suggests that the plant needs abundant water to thrive well.

Leaves

Leaves are ovate, cordate (heart-shaped at the base). The leaf margin is crenate (with curved tooth) with incurved bristles. The leaves are arranged in an alternate manner on the stems. The leaves may be hairy on nerves on the upper surface and pale and hairless on the lower surface.

Leaves of Impatiens elegans showing crenate margin with bristles.
Leaves showing crenate margin with bristles.

Flowers

Each peduncle bears 3 to 5 flowers in short umbels or short raceme like inflorescence. The flowers are about 2.5 cm across, pale pink to pink with a purple center. Bracts are ovate-lanceolate, tapering towards the end and recurved. The lateral sepals are ovate with a green ridge ending in an acumen (a sharp tapering point).

Impatiens elegans flowers.
Impatiens elegans flowers.

The lip (you have to turn the flower behind to see this) is boat-shaped, very small. The flower lacks a spur. This is an important character to distinguish Impatiens elegans from Impatiens cordata which has a spur. Other than this, both the plants look exactly the same. You can differentiate both these species with the absence and presence of spur (a tail-like appendage that extends from the lip) respectively.

Sideview of the flower showing the absence of spur.
Sideview of the flower showing the absence of spur.

Fruits

Fruits are inflated capsules with seeds. The capsules are ovoid, elliptical, ridged, beaked, bulged in the middle, green, hairless, about 1.2 cm in length. The seeds are sub-spherical and hairy.

When mature, these are ready to burst anytime just with a light touch. This can even be done by a raindrop! The capsule bursts catapulting the seeds away from the mother plant.

Impatiens elegans fruit focused.

Conservation status and threats

Impatiens elegans is an endangered plant where it faces threats from loss of habitats. The habitats in which this plant grows are unfortunately best suited for tea and coffee plantations. There is huge pressure from the private tea plantations extending their area by destroying their habitat. These delicate plants already face huge pressure from climate change, failing monsoons and lack of pollinators, poor seed germination, flowers and leaves eaten by herbivore insects, and more from nature! Destruction of habitats is yet another death blow to the survival of these plants. It is necessary to preserve their habitats and preserve these species…

More Photos!

Impatiens elegans growing on a dripping rock.
Impatiens elegans growing on a small waterfall.
A mosaic of beautiful Impatiens elegans leaves and flowers!
A mosaic of beautiful Impatiens elegans leaves and flowers!
Impatiens elegans growing in large groups on the roadsides, happily under the shade of evergreen trees!
Impatiens elegans growing in large groups on the roadsides, happily under the shade of evergreen trees!

References and Further Reading

  1. Valparai Plant Trip – Happy Botanist
  2. Impatiens elegans – Flowers of India
  3. A research article on the reproductive biology of Impatiens elegans

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OrobanchaceaeWestern Ghats

Christisonia tubulosa – The Magenta Ghost Flower

Christisonia tubulosa

Christisonia tubulosa

The Magenta Ghost Flower is a parasitic plant that is endemic to Southern Western Ghats, which means it is not found in any other part of the World. It grows as a root parasite and completely lacks leaves and chlorophyll. So, it solely depends upon other plants for nutritions and steals it from other plants.

Taxonomy

Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Angiosperms
Sub-Division:Eudicots
Class:Asterids
Order:Lamiales
Family:Orobanchaceae
Genus:Christisonia
Species:C. tubulosa

Habitat

Christisonia tubulosa is endemic to Anamalai Hills in the Southern Western Ghats. It is found in the Shola Forests of altitutes ranging from 1000 to 2000 meters above sea level.

Identification

It can be difficult or nearly impossible to find this plant if it is not in flowers. It grows as a parasite mainly on grasses in Evergreen forests and Shola forests. It mostly flowers during the monsoon season and one can spot these plants in the forest floor by a mere glimpse. It can be identified by the particularly bright colored flowers emerging from the forest floor.

The flower is tubular, white in color with bright magenta border. The interior of the flower will be bright yellow and the white stigma is prominently visible inside the flower.

Fleshy leafless parasitic herbs, 15-26 cm high. Stem scaly, simple or branched from the rootstock. Scales 2-3 mm long, ovate-lanceolate. Inflorescence terminal, lax racemes; pedicels 1-2.5 cm long. Calyx tubular; tube 0.8-1.2 cm long; lobes obtuse. Corolla funnel-shaped, purplish white; tube 2.5-4 cm long, 2-lipped, 5-lobbed; lobes orbicular, subequal, lower lip yellowish at throat. Stamens 4, didynamous, connivent in pairs; anthers 2-celled, 1 cell perfect, other sterile, spurred. Ovary 1-celled, ovules many; style slender; stigma peltate. Capsule 0.8-1.2 cm long, ovoid. Seeds many, minute, calyx tube persistent in fruits. – Eflora of India Website

First sight

The Magenta Ghost Flower was first found and described in 1835 by Robert Wight, a renowned British taxonomist who worked in South India. He was a Scottish surgeon in the East India Company, whose professional career was spent entirely in southern India, where his greatest achievements were in botany. As a taxonomist, he described 110 new genera and 1267 new species of flowering plants!

Later, George Gardner, who became the superintendent of the Peradeniya Garden in Sri Lanka, named the genus “Christisonia” after Sir Robert Christison, Professor of Medicine at Edinburgh. He was also a school friend of Robert Wight.

More images 🙂

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Solanaceae

Nicotiana attenuata – A plant with amazing adaptations

Nicotiana attenuata

The plant is also known as Wild tobacco or Coyote tobacco and is native to western North America and northern Mexico. These plants grow well in these regions. They are widely used for various medicinal purposes and for smoking by the Aborigines in North America.  Nicotiana attenuata has been recently studied by many plant biologists and chemists and the observations blew their mind which you’ll read here and get your mind blown!

Taxonomy

Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Angiosperms
Sub-division:Eudicots
Class:Asterids
Order:Solanales
Family:Solanaceae
Genus:Nicotiana
Species:N. attenuata

Morphology

The plant is a small annual herb that reaches a maximum height of 1 metre. It is sparsely haired and glandular. The leaves are arranged rosulate and are broader at the base and narrower towards the top. The leaves are petiolate. The flowers are long tubular about 2 to 3 centimeters in length and are greenish white. The leaves are borne in green and sharp sepals.

Usage

Nicotiana attenuata has been widely used by the native people for various medicinal purposes and smoking. They smoked this plant ceremoniously. The leaves of N. attenuata were picked, dried and greased.  After this, the leaves of bear berry plants are collected, dried and made into a powder. They smoked the leaves of N. attenuata mixed with the crushed dried bear berry leaves.

Now, here comes the interesting part!

The plant has a variety of defences against its enemies. First, it comes with its innate defence. The plant has high concentrations of nicotine which is poisonous to most of the animal and insect species. The nicotine is produced in the roots and accumulated in the leaves. This protects the plant from voracious herbivores and other insects. Nicotiana attenuata tobacco is found to contain as much as three times more nicotine concentration compared to normal tobacco plant.

Hawk Moths

The Hawk Moths are seriously important for the survival of this plant. This moth is an effective pollinator of the wild tobacco plant. The plant relies on this moth greatly for its pollination. The moths are generally nocturnal and so the plant blooms only during the nights in order to facilitate pollination by the moth. But, the cunning moth claims huge price from the plant for its services. As the moth visits each plant, it lays its eggs on it. The eggs then hatch into caterpillars and start devouring the plant. These little buggers are resistant to nicotine and start growing well on this plant.

Hawkmoth sucking nectar from N. attenuata flowers

Call for Help

The plant made a terrible decision by choosing these moths as its pollinator. But, its never too late to mend! The plant has a plan B to solve this issue. As the attack of the caterpillars increase, the plant releases volatile compounds in air. These volatile chemicals attract the bugs called Geocoris which feed on the caterpillars and eggs of the hawk moths. This chemical signal also induces other plants around it to release the same alarm signal. This is triggered by the oral secretions of the caterpillars.

Hawkmoth Caterpillars feeding on leaves.
Geocoris bugs feeding on eggs!
Geocoris bugs feeding on Caterpillars. YAY!

Sinister Lollipops!

Sometimes, friends may not be available for the plant at the right time or there may even be too much attack that the Geocoris bugs cannot handle. This time, the plant has a second plan. It gets ready to face the caterpillars itself! The plant secretes a juicy sweet liquid from its trichomes which are irresistible to the caterpillars and they readily consume the sweet liquid. The dumb caterpillars don’t know the sinister plans of the plant! They eat the nectar and they wiggle around in it and now the plan worked! The caterpillars all smell like nectar. This would now attracts more predators who have not noticed the plant’s previous call. The nectar has two purposes indeed. One is to make the caterpillars smell like delicious lemon pies to its enemies. The second is it contains a chemical enzyme that would slow down the caterpillars digestion, thereby reducing its metabolism. This in turn makes the caterpillar eat less and the plant would feel quite safe until the caterpillar becomes a prey to one of its predators!

A New Welcome Party!

The plant has worked so much to avert these caterpillars to save itself. A single Hawk Moth is able to lay an astounding 200 eggs and there would be a dozens of these moths visiting each plant. So much eggs would turn into a judgement day for the Wild Tobacco plant. When everything gets too bad that the plant cannot take more, it does not give up! It gives another big surprise by switching its pollinators. These plants are capable of switching their pollinators! The plant suddenly stops blooming at night and the flowers start blooming during the day. The flowers in the day attract Humming Birds which pollinate the flowers. The plant is capable of switching its flowering cycle from night to day in just 8 days.

Though the plant switches its pollinators to Humming Birds, it seems that Hawk Moths are a better choice for them. The plants again switch back to night flowering as they are rid of the caterpillars. But, all together this plant has some fascinating ways to live its life and teaches us to never give up as problems bug us like the caterpillars bug the plant.

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Sapotaceae

Mimusops elengi – The Bullet Wood Tree

Mimusops elengi

This is a tropical evergreen tree found mostly in south-eastern Asia and some parts of Northern Australia. It is known by different names, மகிழம் or வகுளம் in Tamil, Bullet Wood or Spanish Cherry in English. Mimusops elengi was quite popular in Tamil Nadu during the ancient times but are facing a decline nowadays.

Taxonomy

Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Angiosperms
Sub-Division:Eudicots
Class:Asterids
Order:Ericales
Family:Sapotaceae
Genus:Mimusops
Species:M. elengi

Identification

This is an evergreen tree that generally grows up to 16 meters in height rarely reaching 18 meters. The tree is called bullet wood because of its fruits that are bullet shaped. The leaves are dark-green, oval shaped with pointy ends. The buds originate as terminal buds in this tree.

The flowers are star shaped, white to sandal colored with strong fragrance. These flowers are known for their property of retaining their scent even after they dry! In India, the flowers are used to make garlands that decorate the women’s hair and also used to worship God.

The fruits are bullet shaped and are green while unripe. They get yellow as get ripe and become dark orange when fully ripe. The seeds are brown or dark brown.

Closeup of a flower
Unripe fruits
Tree with ripe flowers

Chemical constituents

The leaves, twigs, bark, seeds flowers and fruits contain several useful chemicals that are used in various Ayurveda treatment methods. The Leaves contain sterols, reducing sugars and tannins, Roots: a steroidal saponin.  The Stem and Bark contain spinasterol and taraxerol, flowers, D-mannitol, beta-sitosterol, and beta-sitosterol- D-glycoside. The Seeds contain pentacyclic triterpene acids, mimusopic and mimusopsic acids.

Medicinal Uses

Mimusops elengi is useful in a variety of ways. Important medicinal uses are,

  • Tender twigs can be used to brush teeth.
  • The bark powder is used along with catechu and pomegranate bark powder in an ayurvedic tooth powder called “Vajradanti”.
  • The pulp of the fruit is used in curing chronic dysentery.
  • The leaves are used as an antidote to snake-bite.
  • Tonic obtained from the bark is used as a tonic, astringent, and to reduce fever.
  • Flowers are dried and used as a brain tonic.
  • The seeds are used as purgatives.
  • Dried powdered flowers are sniffed through nostrils could treat headaches.
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Lamiaceae

Ocimum tenuiflorum – The Holy Basil

Ocimum sanctum

Ocimum tenuiflorum is an aromatic plant. It is known for its medicinal value and is widely used all-over India for various purposes. It is considered so sacred in India that people use to worship this plant.

Taxonomy

Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Angiosperms
Sub-Division:Eudicots
Class:Asterids
Order:Lamiales
Family:Lamiaceae
Genus:Ocimum
Species:O. tenuiflorum

Occurrence

The Tulsi or O. tenuiflorum is native to India and also grows well throughout the Indian Sub-Continent. It is also grown for various purposes in the South East Asian countries.

Chemical Composition

The main chemical constituents of Tusli are oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid, eugenol, carvacrol, linalool, β-caryophyllene, β-elemene, and germacrene D. Extracts of O. sanctum has some anti-bacterial properties against E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa.

Medicinal Value

Our ancestors knew about its value and so every home had this plant. They made tulsi as a worshipping thing as it would be planted in every house and temples atleast for worshipping. For this cause, It was considered a plant from then. Some of the benefits of tulsi are,

  • It is a best stress buster. Chewing Tulsi leaves or having tulsi tea can help control stress and anxiety.
  • There are a number of benefits in consuming tulsi leaves in empty stomach.
  • It is a best remedy for common cold, cough and asthma.
  • Tulsi leaf paste, neem paste, ginger powder and pepper powder can help reduce fever.
  • Consuming tulsi leave juice with honey can reduce obesity, kidney stones and also it detoxifies the blood.
  • Eating 4 to 5 Tulsi leaves in empty stomach every morning will cure all digestive tract problems.
  • Shade dried powdered tulsi leaves can be used to brush teeth which helps prevent Bleeding gums.
  • Putting in a few drops of tulsi juice in the eyes can help cure sore eyes and night blindness.

Nowadays, most of the houses never have tulsi plants. We must pass our ancestors’ knowledge to our future generations. This is relatively easy. This can be done by planting a tulsi in our homes.

Note

O. tenuiflorum and O. sanctum are morphophytes of the same species like the polymorphism of Jaguars and Panthers. Both plants exist in the same habitat but with slightly different appearance and functions. O. tenuiflorum is has purple colored leaves, stems, flowers while O. sanctuum is fully green!

This article provides knowledge about various Ocimum species – Click Here.

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